Technical paper

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2SIS technology in MV Switchgear improves harsh environment and drastically reduces internal arc probability (CICED 2014-FP 0314)
For efficient smartgrid deployment, availability of MV networks is of high importance. MV switchgear play a keyrole for this purpose and more often, harsh environment withstand is required, thus...
Technical paper 16/04/2015 Add to my Documents
Time to reconsider VT's implementation for a better reliability
In the smart grid deployment, more and more voltagetransformers (VTs) are used to provide voltagemeasurements, for example for power measurement. Intraditional switchboards, VTs were identified as...
Technical paper 23/03/2015 Add to my Documents
Technical paper 15/11/2008 Add to my Documents
CT 214 - Energy efficiency: benefits of variable speed control in pumps, fans and compressors
A large proportion of the electricity produced around the world is used to raise, move or pressurise liquids and gases with machines such as pumps, fans and compressors.Given the increasing...
Technical paper 15/05/2008 Add to my Documents
The neutral: A live and unique conductor
Paradoxically, although the neutral conductor is a live conductor, current should never be allowed to circulate in it.Nevertheless, there has been renewed interest in the neutral conductor in...
Technical paper 15/06/2004 Add to my Documents
Calculations for LV and HV networks
This Cahier Technique publication is intended to provide a general overview of the main electrotechnical calculations carried out in engineering studies on electrical systems at all voltage...
Technical paper 01/12/2004 Add to my Documents
Electronic starters and variable speed drives
The most common way of starting asynchronous motors is directly on the line supply. This technique is often suitable for a wide variety of machines. However, it sometimes brings with it...
Technical paper 11/01/2003 Add to my Documents
Electric motors ... and how to improve their control and protection
Nowadays, apart from lighting devices, electric motors represent the largest loads in industry and commercial installations. Their function, to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy,...
Technical paper 01/10/2004 Add to my Documents
Basic selection of MV public distribution networks
Medium voltage - MV - public distribution networks are constructed on the basis of two fundamental parameters which influence the majority of their components as well as their operation. These...
Technical paper 01/05/2001 Add to my Documents
Power Quality
One of the properties of electricity is that some of its characteristics depend not only on the electricity producer/distributor but also on the equipment manufacturers and the customer. The large...
Technical paper 01/10/2001 Add to my Documents
Ferroresonance is a non-linear resonance phenomenon that can affect power networks. The abnormal rates of harmonics and transient or steady state overvoltages and overcurrents that it causes are...
Technical paper 01/03/1998 Add to my Documents
Dynamic stability of industrial electrical networks
Given that electrical energy is very difficult to store, a permanent balance between production and consumption is vital. Generators, loads and the electrical networks which connect them have...
Technical paper 01/06/1997 Add to my Documents
Lightning and HV electrical installations
The goal of this "Cahier Technique" publication is to:- present an overview of lightning phenomena and their effects on electrical installations,- present currently available means to protect...
Technical paper 01/06/1994 Add to my Documents
Electrodynamic forces on busbars in LV systems
This quest for dependability requires studies in order to master, from the design stage, the behaviour of their components in the light of their environment and of possible operating stresses. One...
Technical paper 01/10/1996 Add to my Documents
Calculation of short-circuit currents
In view of sizing an electrical installation and the required equipment, as well as determining the means required for the protection of life and property, short-circuit currents must be calculated...
Technical paper 01/09/2005 Add to my Documents
EMC: Electromagnetic compatibility
For all electrotechnical equipment, EMC must be considered right from the initial design phase and the various principles and rules carried on through to manufacture and installation.This means...
Technical paper 01/12/2001 Add to my Documents
Electrical disturbances in LV
LV networks are highly polluted and subject to a large number ofaggressions. Electrotechnical equipment and in particular electronicdevices, that are increasingly numerous and process ever lower...
Technical paper 01/03/2000 Add to my Documents
Overvoltages and insulation coordination in MV and HV
Insulation coordination is a discipline aiming at achieving the best possible technico-economic compromise for protection of people and equipment against overvoltages, whether caused by the network...
Technical paper 01/02/1995 Add to my Documents
Fault arcs on busbar sets and switchboards
The probability of appearance of a fault arc on a set of busbars cannot be considered as non-existant. The behaviour and speed of arcs have been analysed by a high-speed photography system. It...
Technical paper 05/01/1983 Add to my Documents
Extra losses caused in high current conductors by skin and proximity effects
A century ago, Lord Kelvin showed that any rapid change of current intensity in a conductor modifies the current density in the various pans of this conductor. The author recalls the consequences...
Technical paper 01/01/1983 Add to my Documents