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CT 214 - Energy efficiency: benefits of variable speed control in pumps, fans and compressors
A large proportion of the electricity produced around the world is used to raise, move or pressurise liquids and gases with machines such as pumps, fans and compressors.Given the increasing...
Calculations for LV and HV networks
This Cahier Technique publication is intended to provide a general overview of the main electrotechnical calculations carried out in engineering studies on electrical systems at all voltage...
Electric motors ... and how to improve their control and protection
Nowadays, apart from lighting devices, electric motors represent the largest loads in industry and commercial installations. Their function, to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy,...
Basic selection of MV public distribution networks
Medium voltage - MV - public distribution networks are constructed on the basis of two fundamental parameters which influence the majority of their components as well as their operation. These...
One of the properties of electricity is that some of its characteristics depend not only on the electricity producer/distributor but also on the equipment manufacturers and the customer. The large...
Ferroresonance is a non-linear resonance phenomenon that can affect power networks. The abnormal rates of harmonics and transient or steady state overvoltages and overcurrents that it causes are...
Dynamic stability of industrial electrical networks
Given that electrical energy is very difficult to store, a permanent balance between production and consumption is vital. Generators, loads and the electrical networks which connect them have...
Lightning and HV electrical installations
The goal of this "Cahier Technique" publication is to:- present an overview of lightning phenomena and their effects on electrical installations,- present currently available means to protect...
Electrodynamic forces on busbars in LV systems
This quest for dependability requires studies in order to master, from the design stage, the behaviour of their components in the light of their environment and of possible operating stresses. One...
Calculation of short-circuit currents
In view of sizing an electrical installation and the required equipment, as well as determining the means required for the protection of life and property, short-circuit currents must be calculated...
EMC: Electromagnetic compatibility
For all electrotechnical equipment, EMC must be considered right from the initial design phase and the various principles and rules carried on through to manufacture and installation.This means...
Electrical disturbances in LV
LV networks are highly polluted and subject to a large number ofaggressions. Electrotechnical equipment and in particular electronicdevices, that are increasingly numerous and process ever lower...
Overvoltages and insulation coordination in MV and HV
Insulation coordination is a discipline aiming at achieving the best possible technico-economic compromise for protection of people and equipment against overvoltages, whether caused by the network...
Extra losses caused in high current conductors by skin and proximity effects
A century ago, Lord Kelvin showed that any rapid change of current intensity in a conductor modifies the current density in the various pans of this conductor. The author recalls the consequences...
Analysis of three-phase networks in disturbed operating conditions using symmetrical components
The dimensioning of an installation and the equipment to be used, the settings for the protection devices, and the analysis of electrical phenomena often require calculation of the currents and...
The use of conformity certification for product validation
This article was presented at the Matpost 2007 conference in Lyon. The aim of this two-day conference is to bring together power utilities, grid operators and manufacturers in order to draw up a...