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PID stands for Proportional, Integral and Derivative, a control method where the controlling signal is a function of the error. The theory of PID is based on Feedback and Control which is an error driven or error actuated process. The control output is set depending on the P, I, and D functions of the error which is simply the difference between the current position ( process variable ) PV and the ( setpoint ) SP. Output corrections are proprtional to the magnitude of the difference or error. Known as a three term controller, the P term is the heart of PID control system. P ( Proportional ) simply means the output varies with the error, also known as gain control it is the only mode that can be used alone. The I ( Integral ) term is known as automatic reset or simply reset, is used to eliminate offset and apply constant control even with zero error. The D ( Derivative ) term known as the rate or preact control prevents overshoot and undershoot.